Groundwater Level Monitoring

Water table groundwater observation wells are used to monitor shallow groundwater responses to drought conditions in each drought evaluation region. In areas west of Route I-95, wells completed in shallow fractured rock formations are indicative of water table conditions. In the Virginia Coastal Plain area east of I-95, indicator observation wells are completed in the shallow unconfined aquifer. For each observation well, measured groundwater levels are compared with historic groundwater level statistics for the period of record.

Drought Stage Thresholds:

  • Normal:  Measured groundwater levels above the 25th percentile for all historic levels
  • Watch:  Measured groundwater levels between the 10th and 25th percentiles for all historic levels
  • Warning:  Measured groundwater levels between the 5th and 10th percentiles for all historic levels
  • Emergency:  Measured groundwater levels below the 5th percentile for all historic levels

Groundwater Level Monitoring Stations

Unless otherwise noted, all of the following stations are part of the Virginia Climate Response Network.  Provisional water level data from the Climate Response Network wells, indicated for each drought evaluation region, are used to update the Drought Indicator Map on a daily basis.  For regions with more than one assigned well, the data from the well with that day's lowest provisional water level values are used for the daily update of the indicator map.

Big Sandy Drought Evaluation Region:

Buchanan County Observation Well: USGS Local Number 15G 19 SOW 222.*

Chowan Drought Evaluation Region:

Eastern Shore Drought Evaluation Region:

Middle James Drought Evaluation Region:

  • Buckingham USGS Observation Well, USGS Local Number 41H 3
  • Colonial Heights USGS Observation Well, USGS Local Number 51G 1

New River Drought Evaluation Region:

  • Christiansburg DEQ Observation Well, USGS Local Number 27F 2 SOW 019

Northern Coastal Plain Drought Evaluation Region:

  • George Washington Birthplace USGS Observation Well, USGS Local Number 55P 9

Northern Piedmont Drought Evaluation Region:

Northern Virginia Drought Evaluation Region:

  • Fairfax County USGS Observation Well, USGS Local Number 52V 2D
  • Harper’s Ferry DEQ Observation Well, USGS Local Number 49Y 1 SOW 022;
  • Prince William County USGS Observation Well, USGS Local Number 51S 7
  • Prince William County USGS Observation Well, USGS Local Number  49V 1

Roanoke River Drought Evaluation Region:

Shenandoah Drought Evaluation Region:

  • Blandy Farm USGS Observation Well, USGS Local Number 46W 175
  • McGaheysville USGS Observation Well, USGS Local Number 41Q 1

Southeast Virginia Drought Evaluation Region:

  • Brinkley USGS Observation Well, USGS Local Number 58B 13
  • Pungo DEQ Observation Well, USGS Local Number 62B 1 SOW 098A

Upper James Drought Evaluation Region:

York-James Drought Evaluation Region:

*These wells are  not part of the Climate Response Network because they do not yet have the required minimum 10-year period of record.

 

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Virginia Department of
Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 1105
Richmond, VA 23218
(804) 698-4000


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